The concept of marketing includes collective bargaining as a contract for the sale of workers. It is a market or exchange relationship justified by the fact that it provides organized workers with a voice on the issue of sale. The same objective rules are invoked which apply to the interpretation of all commercial contracts, since it concerns the relationship between the trade union and management as a commercial relationship. Collective bargaining imposes certain restrictions on the employer. Unilateral action is prevented. All employees are treated equally. The terms and conditions of employment and wage rates set out in the agreement may only be changed through negotiation with employees. The employer is not free to make and implement decisions according to his will. Therefore, negotiation is a political process, as it establishes a constitution to which both interest groups adhere. (iv) A number of agreements provide for joint consultation in various forms. and feasible and effective. To some extent, these approaches represent the state of development of the negotiation process itself. The first negotiations were simply to conclude a contract for the terms of the sale of labor.
Developments in the latter period led to the emergence of government theory. The approach to industrial relations dates back to the Labour Disputes Act of 1947 in our country, which created a legal basis for trade union participation in management. Perhaps the biggest advantage of this system is that by reaching a formal agreement, both parties know exactly what to expect from each other and are aware of the rights they have. This can reduce the number of conflicts that occur later. It can also make operations more efficient. They represent the interests and demands of employees and employers and try to reach an agreement. Second, negotiations may take place between a single enterprise with several establishments and workers employed in all those establishments. This form is called collective bargaining in several companies, where employees negotiate with the common employer through different unions.
In addition to worker training programmes, the participation of workers in management, the further development of the Code of Trade Union Harmony, the Code of Efficiency and Welfare, the Disciplinary Code, the formation of joint management boards, employee committees and works councils, as well as the formulation of complaint procedures at company level have promoted collective bargaining. It is complex in nature because it involves several procedures, techniques and tools. It is important to note that once a collective agreement has been concluded, both the employer and the union are required to respect that agreement. Therefore, an employer should seek the assistance of a lawyer before participating in the collective bargaining process. State laws continue to regulate collective bargaining and make collective agreements enforceable under state law. They can also provide guidelines for employers and employees who are not covered by the NLRA, for example. B agricultural workers. In the past, Governors Chris Christie of New Jersey and Scott Walker of Wisconsin have engaged in high-profile battles with public sector unions.
Christie was attacked by the New Jersey Education Association (NJEA) for restructuring teachers` pensions as part of its efforts to cut public spending. Walker`s move to restrict the collective bargaining rights of Wisconsin teachers proved so controversial that his opponents managed to collect enough signatures to force a recall against Walker in June 2012. The governor won the election. Collective bargaining can only take place through trade unions. Trade unions are the parties to workers` collective bargaining. The main task of trade unions is to protect the economic and non-economic interests of workers through constructive programmes, and collective bargaining is one of the instruments for achieving this objective through negotiations with employers. (v) For collective bargaining to function properly, unfair labour practices on both sides must be avoided. Every year, millions of American workers negotiate or negotiate their negotiated contracts. However, some employers are trying to undermine existing bargaining relationships and cancel many hard-won contract terms. Trade unions continue to fight for the inherent rights of workers and to restore the balance of economic power in our country through collective agreements. Production standards, technical practices, details of labour rules, performance standards, fatigue compensation, recruitment and dismissal, protection of life and physical integrity, overtime pay, working hours, wage rates and methods of payment of wages, recognition of trade unions, cuts, union security, leave and workers` competence are negotiated and agreed upon through collective bargaining. Current practices develop procedures to broaden the scope of collective bargaining.
Collective bargaining has formally sanctioned experience and trade agreements. (iii) long-term agreements between 2 and 5 years are extended; “Collective bargaining is a form of determining conditions of employment through negotiations between an organized body of workers and an employer or association of workers, usually acting through authorized agents. The essence of collective bargaining is bargaining between interested parties and not between external parties.” It has fluidity. There is no fixed rule for reaching an agreement. There is ample room for compromise. A spirit of concession works unless a final agreement acceptable to both parties is reached. The main objective of the development of collective bargaining technology is to improve relations between workers and management, thus maintaining peace in industries. The technique only developed in India after India`s independence and has since gained momentum. Like tripartite conferences, joint advisory bodies and industry committees at the industry level, they have created a sophisticated mechanism to promote collective bargaining practices. Whenever the management does not respect the agreement of the constitutional requirements, a judicial mechanism is provided through the complaint procedure and arbitration. .